EM stands for (effective microorganisms). EM is a combination of various beneficial, naturally occurring microorganisms; mostly used for or found in foods. EM contains beneficial organisms from 3 main genera: photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeast. These effective microorganisms secrete beneficial substances such as vitamins, organic acids chelated minerals and antioxidants when in contact with organic matter. They change soil micro flora and fauna so that disease-inducting soil becomes disease-suppressing soil, which in turn has the capability to develop into axymogene soil. The anti-oxidation effects of these microorganisms pass directly to the soil or indirectly to plants maintaining their NPK and CN ratio. This process increases the humus content of the soil and is capable of sustaining high quality food production.
Effective microorganisms were developed over many years in liquid form and finished in 1982. At first EM was considered an alternative for agriculture; chemicals. But its use has now spread to application in environmental， industrial and health fields. However， it must be stressed that EM is not a synthetic chemical or a medicine but a microbial formula.